This is a curated list of the Bay Area’s most notable and permanent restaurant and bar closures, with new updates published once a week. See a closing we missed? Then drop us a line.
LOWER HAIGHT — Fort Point Brewing Company closed its taproom on Haight Street as of Sunday, June 26, the popular local brewery announced on Instagram. The decision will allow the company to focus on other aspects of the business including wholesale accounts and its remaining retail locations at the Ferry Building and in the Mission.
MISSION — As EaterSF reported Wednesday, Mission District institution Cha Cha Cha will close its doors after 25 years of sangria and shrimp in spicy sauce on July 3. The restaurant and bar’s location on Haight Street will remain open.
SUNSET — According to a post on Instagram, Sunset pizzeria Strada Pizza will be closing its doors July 1. The shop debuted in June 2019, and as the post indicates, the pandemic and “other events” made survival a struggle. The space, 115 Taraval Street, will be replaced with a new “concept and owner,” the post shares.
WEST PORTAL — After 44 years serving Italian food on Ocean Avenue, family-run restaurant Villa d’Este will see its last customers on Thursday, June 30. SFGATE broke the news, pointing to an announcement on the restaurant’s website in which owner Ramon Oropeza Sr. shared his plans to retire.
BERKELEY — Shen Hua, a 25-year-old favorite Chinese restaurant for UC Berkeley students and their families, has closed for good, SFGATE first reported. Owner Edward Chu posted a sign indicating the imminent closure, and the last day of business was Sunday, June 26.
RODEO — Family-owned and operated restaurant Ricky’s Corner served its last buckets of fried chicken and plates of spaghetti on Saturday, June 25, first announced on Facebook. The East Bay restaurant was open for 42 years.
WEST SACRAMENTO — Say goodbye to a Central California landmark. Per the Sacramento Bee, West Sacramento’s Club Pheasant will close in the coming months. The 87-year-old restaurant has been run by the Palamidessi family since the mid-1930s but in a post on the restaurant’s website the owners say they expect to shut the business down at the end of the year.
SACRAMENTO — It’s a bit complicated, but it seems Sacramento’s top fried chicken destination South will indeed close its doors on July 1. The Sacramento Bee dove deep into the drama surrounding the business’ end; in a nutshell, co-owners and ex-husband-and-wife N’Gina Guyton and Ian Kavookjian are caught up in a legal battle because she wants to quit (she’s the culinary force behind the restaurant) while he wants to keep the business open.
BERNAL HEIGHTS — The days of chicken so good it requires an extra ‘o’ look to be over as Goood Frikin’ Chicken in Bernal Heights has closed after an 18-year run. The spot, known for its grilled and rotisserie chickens, was first noted as shuttered by local Twitter personality Burrito Justice on June 16. The restaurant has earned spots on local favorites lists over the years and was named a best under-$20 bargain in Bernal Heights.
NORTH BEACH — Ethiopian restaurant Massawa has closed after 31 years in San Francisco, the San Francisco Business Times reports. The restaurant began in Upper Haight before moving to North Beach in 2015; Massawa allegedly closed the recent location due to a legal battle with the landlord over unpaid rent, the news site stated.
EMBARCADERO — According to a tweet from Off The Grid on June 6, the food truck festival organizer will no longer host its Vallejo & Front streets event; anyone looking to get their street food fix should head to the event at Levi’s Plaza, which runs Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m.
OAKLAND — Berkeleyside reports Downtown Wine Merchants, an East Bay spot for happy hour and approachable food, has closed after eight years. The shop has been sold to new owners, the same folks behind popular natural wine destination Snail Bar, who plan to open a new bar called Slug in the space.
OAKLAND — Via Berkeleyside comes news of the closure of two Oakland Chinese restaurants. The first is Great Wall Chinese Restaurant, which was located on College Avenue and served “budget-friendly dishes favoring vegetarians and seafood lovers.” The owners have sold the business, a sign on the restaurant’s door says.
OAKLAND — Also shuttered is Little Shin Shin, a decades-old Chinese American restaurant on Piedmont Avenue, Berkeleyside spotted.
HAYWARD — Buffalo Bill’s Brewery, one of the first brewpubs in America, has poured its final pint, SFGATE reports. The brewery earned credit for helping popularize pumpkin beer but owner and master brewer Geoff Harries told SFGATE the pandemic-induced extended closure proved too difficult for the bar to bounce back from.
PALO ALTO — A popular Palo Alto watering hole will also shutter: the Marin Independent Journal reports sports bar and Stanford hangout the Old Pro will close after June 19, citing the impact of the pandemic as a major cause.
SOMA — Les Gourmands made a splash back in 2017 for its $29 brioche, but the French bakery was known to SOMA residents and workers for its variety of viennoiserie, bread, and coffee, as well as its apprentice program. An Eater SF tipster mentioned the shop was closed, and calls to the number went unanswered for confirmation.
HAYES VALLEY — Fried dough sensation Johnny Doughnuts has closed its Hayes Valley outpost, the Chronicle spotted first. According to a post on Instagram, the shop is simply on the move to a new San Francisco location. In the meantime you can get your fix in either Marin or at Fort Mason on Friday nights during Off the Grid’s weekly food truck festival.
INNER SUNSET — Tekuno tea shop on Clement has closed for good; an email to the business, however, confirmed that the company is “still alive and doing well” but has shifted to focus on its online store, wholesale partners, and pop-ups.
MISSION — Flour + Water Pizzeria will close its doors on June 17, when owner David White plans to rebrand and lightly renovate the Valencia Street space. When the restaurant returns in mid-July it’ll be called Yellow Moto Pizzeria, though the pizzas themselves will remain the same. The biggest addition will be a new bar and a full cocktail menu from Enrique Sanchez to go along with it.
OAKLAND — Chef Nite Yun announced the closure of her Eater Award-winning Cambodian restaurant Nyum Bai on Instagram Friday, calling it the ending of the restaurant’s “first chapter, which has been something truly special.”
SACRAMENTO — Per the Bee, Junoon Flavors of India at 3672 J Street has closed its doors temporarily while the restaurant undergoes a change of ownership. When it reopens, it’ll be under the name New Kathmandu Kitchen.
INNER SUNSET — As of April 30 Inner Sunset residents have one less restaurant to frequent in their neighborhood. As first reported by Tablehopper, 25-year-old Pomelo restaurant closed last month citing rising costs, supply chain issues, and staffing problems as the causes for the decision in a post on Instagram.
PALO ALTO — Tono Coffee Project, a pandemic-born Silicon Valley coffee counter, announced its plans to close after May 15, Palo Alto Online reports. Founded by Bryan Chiem as an events company in 2017, Tono found its more permanent home in June 2020 inside natural wine bar Salvaje.
SACRAMENTO — The Midtown Sacramento location of Broderick Roadhouse’s, a burger spot and bar, is closing around May 15, the Bee reports. Owner Chris Jarosz, also behind Anonimo Pizza, says he was on a month-to-month lease and now plans to move the restaurant into its original West Sacramento spot (319 6th Street), which has been closed for the last two years.
OAKLAND — Mudlab, a zero waste cafe and grocery store, has closed permanently, Berkeleyside reports. The business debuted in 2019 and cited “continuing issues with our location and the costs of staying open” as the reasons for the closure in a post on the cafe’s website.
BERKELEY — Though the Venus website still refers to temporary closures at both its Solano and Shattuck outposts, owner Deepak Aggarwal confirmed to Berkeleyside that both locations are in fact closed for good. The restaurants served California cuisine and a brunch menu with options such as an Indian brunch plate and a tofu dish called Harajuku.
BERKELEY — Cafe Nostos, a Greek cafe that opened in 2017, has closed as of April 28, owner John Samaras told Berkeleyside. Samaras thanked his loyal customers for their support.
ALBANY — Via a post on Instagram, cult favorite ice cream pop-up Randy’s Best Ice Cream announced its run has come to an end. April 23 was the last day to get Brandon Nguyen’s durian coconut and apple saba vanilla desserts. Nguyen said the decision came after he began to think about his future and whether or not the ice cream business fit. “I am not quitting the ice cream because it’s hard now, or because it has been unsuccessful,” his post reads in part.
BURLINGAME — Citing the “heavy, often distracting pressure to perform” that came with being awarded a Michelin star, the owner of Rasa in Burlingame says he’s closing the Indian restaurant. Ajay Walia tells the Chronicle he’ll flip the space into a second location of his more casual restaurant Saffron.
SAN MATEO — KQED broke the sad news: Yu-Raku, one of the only Bay Area restaurants specializing in “chuka ryori, or Japanese-style Chinese food” will close after May 15. Owner Sakae Yuizumi says he and his wife want to retire.
REDWOOD CITY — Warung Siska, the Indonesian restaurant that opened in July 2021, has closed, a spokesperson told Eater SF via email. The restaurant struggled with staffing issues, the statement reads, but for a limited time customers can order food from the restaurant through delivery app Locale.
SANTA ROSA — Willie Bird Turkey in Santa Rosa is closing after 47 years, the Press Democrat reports. The deli and store hit rough times during the pandemic with fewer customers returning and with upgrades to the property coming up, the decision was made to close the storefront and focus on retail. Willie Bird Turkey will close at the end of May.
CHINATOWN — After 27 years and visits from luminaries including former President Bill Clinton, Washington Bakery will serve its final baked pork chops and pineapple buns on April 23. The restaurant’s owner announced the closure on Instagram, thanking customers for their support of the family-owned business over the decades.
CHINATOWN — Hunan Home’s, the small Chinese restaurant with a red-and-blue awning on Jackson, has closed. According to an Eater tipster and a photo on Yelp the space has been emptied out and the phone line is disconnected.
OUTER RICHMOND — Shai Lai Seafood, described as a “neighborhood favorite for dim sum and seafood” by a different Eater tipster, has closed. The restaurant was located on Geary at 27th Avenue.
SACRAMENTO — Roxy Restaurant and Bar, which has been serving an approachable menu of burgers, salads, and steaks in the Arden-Arcade neighborhood for 15 years, closed its doors for the final time on Sunday, April 17. According to the Sacramento Bee, the owners couldn’t renew their lease.
SACRAMENTO — A South Sacramento Taiwanese restaurant is also calling it quits: the Bee reports Yang’s Noodles, a beloved “hole-in-the wall,” closed earlier this month after nine years in business.
FISHERMAN’S WHARF — San Francisco Business Times first broke the sad news: after nearly a century hawking fresh seafood at Fisherman’s Wharf, Alioto’s has likely served its last bowl of cioppino. The restaurant went dark more than two years ago at the onset of the pandemic and has yet to reopen; now the owners have reached a tentative agreement with the Port of San Francisco, which owns the property where the restaurant is located, to settle back rent and terminate the restaurant’s lease.
HAYES VALLEY — Noir Lounge, the sexy Hayes Valley wine bar open since 2013, will close this Saturday, April 16, Tablehopper reports. It’ll be replaced by a wine bar called Gambit Lounge.
MISSION — Tijuana-themed beer destination Lupulandia Brewing has been closed for most of this year but a Business Times report indicates the business is done for good. The 7,000-square-foot fully licensed brewery space, located at 2243 Mission Street, is on the market for lease.
INNER SUNSET — Eater SF broke the news last week that Tart to Tart and Mexican Grill, a Mexican restaurant located inside the Inner Sunset coffee shop and bakery, have closed as of April 7.
OUTER RICHMOND — Plan your last few trips to Ocean Beach Cafe while you still can. Owner Joshua James tells Eater SF he’s selling the business to former Atelier Crenn sous chef Frank Gama, who will open a new restaurant in the space. The timeline for the transition is still to-be-determined but James expects to serve the last of Ocean Beach Cafe’s nonalcoholic beverages in the coming months.
BERKELEY – Family-owned and operated coffee shop Brewed Awakening is closing on April 22, SFGATE reports. The owners of the 35-year-old shop couldn’t reach a deal with their landlord, who proposed a rent increase.
HAYES VALLEY — As of March 13, Mayan-Yucatecan pop-up Akna has ended its run in Hayes Valley. In a post on Instagram father-and-son team Eddie and Ivan Arriaga of the Absinthe Group announced the closure.
MISSION — Asiento, the Mission District tapas bar and restaurant, has closed as of April 2, Hoodline spotted first. The announcement came on Facebook, heralding the end of 11 years of DJ dance nights, affordable Spanish wines and cocktails, and non-traditional Spanish fare.
ALAMEDA — American Oak, an upscale American restaurant known for its extensive whiskey selection, has ended its run in Alameda after 15 years, Berkeleyside reports. A post on the restaurant’s Facebook page reads in part: “We are extremely grateful to and appreciative of our thousands of wonderful customers over the years — especially our loyal core of diehard regulars. You know who you are and we will never forget you.”
BERKELEY — After a decade in business, East Bay sports bar Pappy’s (named for former UC Berkeley football coach Pappy Waldorf) closed its doors for good in mid-March, SFGATE reported.
EL CERRITO — Berkeleyside also breaks the sad news that El Salva Mex (formally Taqueria El Salva Mex) closed in February. The restaurant served Salvadoran and Mexican dishes for a decade in the East Bay.
NAPA — Wine country has lost a vibrant Mexican restaurant and patio. Gran Electrica announced plans to close on Instagram and co-owner Tamer Hamawi tells the Chronicle the decision comes after the business has struggled with persistent staff shortages. “We had to change our service model and we weren’t able to give the kind of service we really loved to give,” Hamawi explained. “It was working, we were surviving, but it wasn’t what we set out to achieve.”
NOB HILL — Early to Rise, the pop-up turned permanent weekend brunch destination on Nob Hill, will suspend service as of Sunday, April 3, per a post on the restaurant’s Instagram. But fans of chef Andrew McCormack’s made-in-house bagels and fried-to-order doughnuts need not fret: the closure is to allow the team more time to prepare for a move to a new location.
In mid-February, McCormack wrote in a newsletter that the restaurant’s current home at 1098 Jackson Street “can’t support a restaurant of the capacity and complexity we envision” for Early to Rise. He’s on the hunt for a new spot and is looking for investors (interested parties can say so here). Stay tuned for news and updates about the move and in the meantime, McCormack asks customers order ahead online during the restaurant’s last two weekends in the current space.
MID-MARKET — Hotbird, the Nashville-style hot chicken sandwich pop-up that put down roots on Market Street in fall 2020, has closed up shop in the city, per a post on Instagram. The good news: the business is just relocating across the bridge and will reopen in a new space at 1951 Telegraph Avenue in Oakland.
JAPANTOWN — Though it might not come as a complete surprise, it’s finally official and still stings: Benkyodo, the 115-year-old mochi shop in San Francisco’s historic Japantown, will close its doors for good on March 31, SFGATE reports. The owners announced plans to retire back in 2021, but they said they hoped someone would purchase the shop, which regularly draws long lines.
NOE VALLEY — Tablehopper broke news about plans for Damansara, a Malaysian and Southeast Asian pop-up, to open in the current Adriana space and has since confirmed owner Sharon Ardiana shuttered the restaurant to focus on her two other businesses: Gialina and Ragazza.
BERKELEY — Vital Vittles, a longstanding East Bay bakery known for its organic whole wheat bread, will close up shop after more than four decades in business, Berkeleyside reports. The owner tells Berkeleyside that the challenges of the pandemic proved insurmountable; the last day in business will be March 31.
MISSION – Cafe St. Jorge, the California and Portugal-inspired shop at the bottom of Bernal Heights, seems to be closed for good. Between a tip sent to Eater, an unanswered phone call during business hours, and months of inactivity reported on Yelp and social media, the cafe shows no signs of life. Cafe St. Jorge reopened for takeout in August 2021, but a call with Universal Bakery around the corner confirmed the cafe has been dark for at least a month.
NOE VALLEY – Running one business is difficult, and running three businesses even moreso. Imagine then how the owners of Ardiana felt, trying to decide how to juggle three separate Italian restaurants afloat. They decided to close their Noe Valley restaurant Adriana to focus on the health of the other two. “Both are doing well and hopefully this summer, SF will return to a more robust dining scene and we can put these shitty 2 years behind us!” owner Sharon Ardiana told Tablehopper this week.
OAKLAND — In a loving and nostalgic gaze through its history, KQED broke the news of Oakland’s Miss Ollie’s final closure. The decision to close had been in the works for a little more than a year, as the restaurant’s plan to operate as a nonprofit was longstanding. Chef and owner Sarah Kirnon hopes to launch the nonprofit, an event space hosting meals and parties she’d call Sanctuary, and has plans of securing a new location to sell takeout food.
NORTH BEACH – Daniel Patterson’s first and final restaurant, Coi, will not reopen, the Chronicle reports. The fine dining restaurant catapulted to Patterson fame about 16 years ago became also a chance for the chef to try and bring a broader range of voices into the high-end restaurant world. It seemed to fail, greatly, with many of the would-be diverse voices backing away or suing Patterson in the fallout of their attempts to work together. The Chronicle reports Patterson hoped to reopen the restaurant but claimed on Instagram that lenders vetoed the idea.
OAKLAND – Due to health issues, the owners of East Oakland’s Masala Cuisine will be shutting down the Indian restaurant. The Chronicle noticed a Facebook post from the owners on February 8 that indicated the impending closure. The owners write that they were not able to find a satisfactory replacement chef, so, after more than 10 years, they’ll say goodbye.
BERKELEY – While it was exciting to see Sizzling Lunch open at 2475 Telegraph Avenue, it meant Sojo Ramen had to hit the road. Nosh reports that around the new year the popular student ramen shop closed up shop.
SEBASTOPOL – K&L Bistro, a Michelin-starred restaurant in downtown Sebastopol, announced its closure in early March. The Press Democrat writes that the news comes just after the popular restaurant was bought by the owners of the Livery on Main, an upcoming multipurpose community and food space.
SACRAMENTO – After more than ten years of pulling espresso shots, Southside Park’s Insight Coffee Roasters has served its last cup. The Bee reports that no definitive reason was provided as to the closure, but the company’s Facebook post announcing the decision indicated that more is to come in the days ahead.
MISSION – The Mission District is losing a 16th Street favorite, this time the Pittsburgh sandwich and sports bar Giordano Bros. Hoodline writes that the restaurant closes after 11 years in service due to the impact of the pandemic. The founders, Jeff and Allison Jordan and Adam DeMezza, got their start selling sandwiches on North Beach in 2004.
HAYES VALLEY – Little Gem’s location at Grove and Gough Streets has been closed since at least July 2021. The restaurant was a favorite for vegans throughout San Francisco, but news of its demise took a backseat to the arrival of 400 Grove Street’s new tenants, Elephant Sushi. Both Hoodline and SFGate referenced COVID-19’s devastation as a cause of the closure.
SUNSET – According to a few longtime fans of Yan Yan Seafood Restaurant on Facebook, the business known for its Hagrid-sized portions of food is closing at the end of February. The Judah Avenue business confirmed that COVID took a toll on the owners, a husband and wife duo, who prepared all the food and handled the front of house operations, too.
PALO ALTO – Bruno Chemel closed his restaurant Baumé, a source for much Michelin-related consternation over the years. On March 8 he and his wife Christie Ledesma Chemel will convert the space, the menu, and the decor into a more casual restaurant called Bistronomie. In September 2021, the restaurant lost both of its Michelin stars which spurred the chef to accuse the whole Michelin institution of “creating no value for restaurateurs or diners.”
HAYES VALLEY – Lazy Susan, the fast-casual Chinese American restaurant, is moving to West Portal at 811 Ulloa Street, which means the 208 Fell Street location is closed as of February 13.
SUNSET – Indigenous Mexican popup Molcaxitl has called it quits. On Instagram owner Nomar Ramirez told his fans he has been working at Fish & Bird Sousaku Izakaya and now is joining Bombera Oakland to learn further from chef Dominica Rice. Ramirez turned heads with his powerful flavors and hustle on behalf of his heritage.
OAKLAND – On Valentine’s Day Modern Times Brewing announced a real heartbreaker. The San Diego company says it’s closing half of its locations, including its Oakland brewery. “So, what do we do now? We get smaller, we get smarter, and we get faster. We invest in our people and build up rather than out,” reads the company’s announcement.
BERKELEY - Trish Rothgeb and Nick Cho’s trend-setting coffee business is closing down their Shattuck Avenue location in Berkeley, one half of Wrecking Ball’s brick and mortar operations. On Instagram the announcement came as sad news to fans and fellow coffee businesses like East Bay’s Chrome Coffee. The last day of service is February 20.
ALAMEDA – Rock Wall Wine Company, a 14-year-old local business proud to count Vice President Kamala Harris as a member of its wine club, will vacate its retrofitted navy air base on February 27. The Chronicle reports the winery’s president and winemaker Shauna Rosenblum blames the pandemic as a primary reason for closing.
CASTRO – As it approached its 30th year in business, Thailand Restaurant came to a silent stop in the Castro. Hoodline reports the owners, Narongchai and Nopparat Wirattigowit, who also own Thai Chef in the Castro, made no comment on the quiet closure. The second story space is now up for grabs, and right as would-be Castro bar owners scour the neighborhood for space.
OAKLAND – An Eater SF tipster spotted an Instagram post on February 9 that let fans of Temescal’s Saucy know the restaurant is closing its Telegraph Avenue shop and moving to Old Oakland in March.
SAN JOSE – The North San Jose location of Mountain View-born Hobee’s is set to close at the end of February. The Mercury reports the fifth Hobee’s restaurant hasn’t been able to keep up with rising rent prices after their weekday business took a plunge due to the impacts of COVID-19. Owners Camille and Daniel Chijate are looking for a new home to serve blueberry coffee cake for, hopefully, another 28 years.
SAN JOSE – Cafe Stritch will not emerge from its two-year COVID closure. Per a Hoodline report, the San Jose downtown/SoFA District bar and venue will flip into a new business called Mama Kin. Cafe Stritch’s former general manager Andrew Saman will helm the new venture, continuing the legacy of live performance and food that began with 1977’s Eulipia Jazz Club.
NORTH BEACH — The Chronicle reports that tiny and whimsical Japanese restaurant Family Cafe has served its final rolls. Its farewell Instagram post, however, teases possible future events and pop-ups.
BERKELEY – After almost six decades, the center of the Bay Area Scandinavian universe, Nordic House, is closing down. Berkeleyside reported in 2019 that the shop had plans to shutter, citing strict importing laws.
BERKELEY – Draw Billiard Club never reopened after that fateful spring of 2020. Now, according to Berkeleyside, a change of ownership sign has been posted in the window. The future venue is called Morgan Cafe, and only time will tell if the eggs are as good as they were with Cracked at the wheel.
SAN JOSE – Hermitage Brewing has been cranking out sour after sour since 2009, but will do so no more after this weekend. The Mercury News let Bay Area fans know that both the taproom and brewing operations will come to a halt; the company has not made the reason for the closure public.
OAKLAND – In an email to Eater SF, a stalwart fan noted that Rikyu Sushi in Rockridge was closing. Chef Tatsuya Koyake served sushi at Kirala, Mikakum, and Kiku in Tokyo.
OAKLAND – The one-time pop-up turned vegan scene mainstay Salvage Hausu has closed. The Chronicle reports that the innovative Jack London Square sushi spot is shuttering after moving from a pop-up location in 2019 to its home with Crooked City Cider. The business gave no particular reason in its farewell Instagram post.
NAPA – The pandemic takes another real one. After 11 years of serving Napa, Ca’Momi Osteria is closing down. The Chronicle reports that its Instagram post announcing the closure cited mental health and safety concerns.
INNER SUNSET — Its arrival was meant to create the Bermuda Triangle of bubble tea. Instead, Irving Street’s Tea 4 You never really got off the ground, and now the windows are dark, Eater SF spotted. Perhaps it was due to popular Little Sweet on 9th Avenue, or to the Yi Fang outpost that came across the street.
BERKELEY — The much-loved Oceanview Diner called it after 40 years of producing pancakes. As reported by Berkeleyside, the shop was opened as a place to fill the bellies of everyone who couldn’t get into the Fourth Street Grill. During the pandemic, however, the business became too lean and staff were hard to come by.
OAKLAND — The Dragon Gate Bar and Grille swung its gate shut for good after eight years on Oakland’s Broadway. Without a formal announcement, the Facebook page for the club said on January 8 it was toasting to “close it out,” with commenters showing love for the departing late-night destination.
SAN MATEO — This one is hard to swallow: as reported by SFGate, All Spice owners Shoshana Wolff and Sachin Chopra are running out of time. They’ve signed a two-year lease for what seems like the last time as the property their restaurant sits on has been sold to developers. Hit 1602 South El Camino Real for fennel beef cheek while you can.
SACRAMENTO — While it was known for its shows, The Boardwalk dished out its fair share of drinks and Boardwalk Burgers through its more than 30 year tenure. According to KCRA, the events space and community hub has played its last song and served its last basket of fries. The business failed, allegedly, due to “dwindling crowds and mounting financial pressure” in addition to, of course, the strain of the pandemic.